ON THE USE OF UAVS IN MINING AND ARCHAEOLOGY - GEO-ACCURATE 3D RECONSTRUCTIONS USING VARIOUS PLATFORMS AND TERRESTRIAL VIEWS
- 1Chair of Mining Engineering and Mineral Economics, Montanuniversitaet Leoben, Leoben, Austria
- 2Institute for Computer Graphics and Vision, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria
Keywords: Photogrammetric Computer Vision, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Image-based 3D Reconstruction, Mapping, Georegistration, Accuracy Evaluation, Structure from Motion, Land Surveying, Mining, Archeology
Abstract. During the last decades photogrammetric computer vision systems have been well established in scientific and commercial applications. Especially the increasing affordability of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in conjunction with automated multi-view processing pipelines have resulted in an easy way of acquiring spatial data and creating realistic and accurate 3D models. With the use of multicopter UAVs, it is possible to record highly overlapping images from almost terrestrial camera positions to oblique and nadir aerial images due to the ability to navigate slowly, hover and capture images at nearly any possible position. Multi-copter UAVs thus are bridging the gap between terrestrial and traditional aerial image acquisition and are therefore ideally suited to enable easy and safe data collection and inspection tasks in complex or hazardous environments. In this paper we present a fully automated processing pipeline for precise, metric and geo-accurate 3D reconstructions of complex geometries using various imaging platforms. Our workflow allows for georeferencing of UAV imagery based on GPS-measurements of camera stations from an on-board GPS receiver as well as tie and control point information. Ground control points (GCPs) are integrated directly in the bundle adjustment to refine the georegistration and correct for systematic distortions of the image block. We discuss our approach based on three different case studies for applications in mining and archaeology and present several accuracy related analyses investigating georegistration, camera network configuration and ground sampling distance. Our approach is furthermore suited for seamlessly matching and integrating images from different view points and cameras (aerial and terrestrial as well as inside views) into one single reconstruction. Together with aerial images from a UAV, we are able to enrich 3D models by combining terrestrial images as well inside views of an object by joint image processing to generate highly detailed, accurate and complete reconstructions.