Application of Geo-Spatial Techniques for Precise Demarcation of Village/Panchayat Boundaries
Keywords: Panchayati Raj Institution, Space based Information Support for Decentralized Planning, Geo-spatial, Cadastral Maps, High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI), Ground Control Points, Village/Panchayat Layers
Abstract. In order to achieve the overall progress of the country with active and effective participation of all sections of society, the 12th Five Year Plan (FYP) would bring Panchayats centre-stage and achieve the inclusive growth agenda through inclusive governance. The concept of 'democratic decentralization' in the form of a three-tier administration was introduced in the name of "Panchayat Raj". Horizontally, it is a network of village Panchayats. Vertically, it is an organic growth of Panchayats rising up to national level. The Ministry of Panchayati Raj has three broad agenda: Empowerment, Enablement and Accountability. Space based Information Support for Decentralized Planning (SIS-DP) is one of the initiatives taken by Govt. of India with ISRO/DOS for generation and dissemination of spatial information for planning at the grass root level.
The boundary layer for villages across different states/district/block is available with line departments. Most of these data exist at a much generalized scale. These boundaries do not overlay exactly with that of ground realities and may not be suitable for accurate analysis in terms of area, shape, position, etc. To deal with this problem, a strategy is adopted, which makes use of High Resolution Satellite Imagery (HRSI) from Indian Remote sensing satellites and cadastral maps at 1:4000 scale integrated with GIS techniques to enhance the accuracy of geo-spatial depiction of Village/Panchayat boundaries.
Cadastral maps are used to depict the boundaries of land parcels and other features at the village level. These maps are registered to ortho products of HRSI using Ground Control Points. The cadastral maps are precisely overlaid on ortho-rectified HRSI and each parcel vertex is tagged with the real-world geographical coordinates. Village boundaries are extracted from the geo-referenced village cadastral maps. These boundaries are fine-tuned by considering under lap and overlap of neighboring villages and a mosaic is generated at the subdistrict and district level. Each village is coded with a unique number based on Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Census department codes. Villages are mapped to their respective Panchayat(s) directory and are dissolved in GIS environment based on code/nomenclature to obtain the final Gram Panchayat Layer.
The present study attempts to showcase the methodology for deriving precise Village/Panchayat Boundaries using geo-spatial techniques. The final output will immensely help the Ministry of Panchayati Raj and Rural Development for implementing the developmental programs in tune with 73th and 74th constitutional amendments.