SEASONAL AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF OZONE INFERRED FROM GLOBAL CHEMISTRY TRANSPORT MODEL SIMULATIONS OVER INDIA
Keywords: ozone, MOZART-4, Seasonal cycle, Spatial distribution, and seasonal maxima
Abstract. In the present study, 3-D chemical transport model, MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers-Version-4) has been used to study the seasonal and spatial distribution of surface ozone (O3) over India. To illustrate the capabilities of model, the simulations are compared with the ground-based observations. The model reproduces the principal features present in ground-based observations. However, model is unable to simulate very low concentration of O3 during monsoon months. The model simulations are used to quantify the contribution of background ozone and Indian anthropogenic emissions to the variability of surface O3. The spatial distribution of total O3 (TO) shows maximum over Indo-Gangetic plains (IGP) and Eastern India while minimum over southern Indian region. The seasonal cycle of TO vary from 34.2 ± 7.6 to 51.9 ± 4.9 ppbv over the Indian landmass region due to changes in its topography and ozone lifetime. Annual mean total background O3 (TBO) over India shows highest during spring (29.3 ± 5.0 ppbv) and lowest during monsoon (19.6 ± 3.4 ppbv). Both Natural background O3 (NBO) and pollution background O3 (PBO) shows a minimum in summer which are essentially following the seasonal changes of total ozone. Significant variation of India pollution O3 (IPO) is found over India and the spatial variation of IPO follows the spatial variation of TO as well as spatial variation of emission of ozone precursors.